Latin name: Picea glauca (Moench) Voss Syn.: P. canadensis (Mill.) BSP.
Botanical family: Pinaceae
Growth habit: Tree
Vernacular name(s): white spruce (Eng.)
├ępinette blanche (Fr.)
wapiskimnahik, eyinatik, minuhik, minahik, si (hta Cree)
me-naig, gawa'ndag (Chippewa)
mzazesso, mskask (Abenaki)
minaiku (Montagnais, ts'iivii, ts'iwa Dene)
ts'uchogh (Chipewyan)
Twigs :Tea used as a general medicine [Algonquians 63]. Steeped to make an antiscorbutic tea [Mi'kmaq 60]. Tips of branches used to brew a tea to "heal the inside". Tea used in sudatory by women after childbirth [Algonquin 69]. Boiled and the vapour taken to fight fever and eye problems [Montagnais 71]. , to relieve cold [Dene 99]. or to ease headache [Dene 101]. Tea used for fever [Montagnais 71]. Mixed with Lycopodium obscurum and inner part of Ostrya virginiana wood in a decoction used for steaming stiff joints in rheumatism [Ojibwa 47]. Young twigs chewed to relieve itchy throat [Dene 99]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree 82]. Juice from young tree boughs used for sore eyes. Towels soaked in tea and wrapped around a woman's waist to speed up delivery, to ease afterbirth pain, and to loosen retained placenta [Dene 101]. Herbal water taken for colds [Cree 93].
Inner bark :Used as a poultice or boiled to make a wash for decayed teeth, skin sores, and burns [Dene 17; Chipewyan 92]. Chewed or drunk as a tea for cough [Algonquin 69; Montagnais 71]. Decoction used in a compound arthritis remedy [Cree 95]. Used in diabetes [Cree 83]. Chewed to relieve cold or maintain good health, or placed on a wound [Dene 99]. Used to stop bleeding from cuts [Cree 81]. Used to treat diabetes [Cree 82]. Mixed with caribou grease to make a salve for burns [Chipewyan 92].
Bark :Tea used as a salve [Mi'kmaq 43]. Steeped and given in tuberculosis [Mi'kmaq 62]. Used as a splint and to heal broken limbs [Dene 100].
Sap :Used to soothe irritated skin, applied to cuts and mouth infections [Dene 17, 99]. Applied to chest to prevent cold and tuberculosis. Tea taken to soothe sore throat [Dene 99]. Applied to stop bleeding from cuts [Dene 13; 99; Cree 81]. Boiled and taken in cough. Heated and pressed on blisters [Cree 80]. Herbal water taken for colds. Heated, mixed with lard, cooled and applied to wound infections [Cree 93].
Bark and branches :Mixed with red willow bark to treat cold [Dene 17].
Gum :Used alone or most commonly mixed with rendered fat from a bear, otter, or beaver, or lard or petroleum jelly, and applied as a salve for skin infections, cuts, rashes, burns, persistent sores, and chapped or craked skin [Cree, Dene, Metis 13; Algonquin 69]. Chewed and the juice swallowed to treat a sore throat [Metis 13]. Mixed with grease to make an ointment to treat skin rashes, scabies, persistent scabs and a growing boil [Cree 95]. Chewed as a laxative [Algonquin 69]. Applied to throat against cough or on back for pain relief [Montagnais 71]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree 82]. Applied in cuts and skin infections [Cree 80, 81]. Used to treat gum disease, cuts, skin rashes, tea drunk for stomach ailments [Dene 100]. Smeared on painful areas of the body, boiled and gargled to cure toothaches, used as an ointment for sores and placed on a wound to stop bleeding, boiled and tea drunk for colds and coughing [Dene 101]. Warm and applied to cuts, boils or sores [Cree 79]. Poultice used to treat skin disorders, bee stings, cuts and burns [Cree 96]. Warmed up and put in infections [Dene 13]. Used to treat sore throat [Dene 100].
Rotten wood :Powdered and used as baby powder or to treat skin rashes [Cree 94, 95].
Cones :Used to make a medicine for excessive urination [Abenaki 67]. Used to make a jelly to treat headache and stomachache [Algonquin 75]. Boiled and water used to wash itchy skin, or drunk against intestinal problems [Montagnais 71]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree 82].
Leaves :Used as an inhalant or fumigator [Ojibwa 87]. Used to treat diabetes related symptoms [Cree 82]. Powder used as a compress for aches and pains [Cree 80, 81]. Cushed, placed on cloth and put in throat to treat pain and burns [Cree 80].
Roots and bark :Tea used for stomach pain, fainting and fits [Ojibwa 86].
Gum and bark :Used for cough [Montagnais 71].
Cones and branches :Tea used for cough and colds, sore throat and chest pain [Dene 99].
Roots :Pounded and boiled to make a liquid medicine [Dene 99].
Young tips, cones and branches :Boiled and taken to treat itchy throat [Dene 99]. Steam used to treat congested head and chest [Dene 100].
Wood :Inside strips put on burns, boiled without bark and taken for sore throat [Cree 79].